Your heart pounds. The air is pressed from your lungs, leaving you breathless. Your mind races as you try to recount how you fell so easily into this situation. You’re experiencing a human crush.
No, we’re not talking about adolescent infatuation. Human crushes are tragic incidents wherein a crowd surges and compresses, sometimes killing its members via asphyxiation. Whether the crowd is running from a crisis like a fire, or surging toward some coveted reward, human crushes can quickly spiral out of control.
In this episode, we cover two specific crushes in depth. Then we follow with a discussion of how human crushes evolve, and what you can do to keep yourself safe.
CONTENT WARNING: Some of the links below contain explicit and graphic video of the disasters. Please take note before opening links marked with “GRAPHIC CONTENT”.
- “Human Crush” Segen’s Medical Dictionary. 2011. Retrieved February 2017.
- List of Human Stampedes via Wikipedia. Retrieved February 2017.
- Khodynka Tragedy via Wikipedia. Retrieved February 2017.
- GRAPHIC CONTENT “The Station Nightclub Fire – February 20, 2003” via Youtube.com. Uploaded by Creepypasta Archives. 14 August 2014.
- GRAPHIC CONTENT “Hillsborough disaster 1989 – rare match footage – RTE TV Live Footage” via Youtube.com. Uploaded by killianM2. 8 April 2013.
- Victoria Hall stampede via Wikipedia. Retrieved February 2017.
- “Worker dies at Long Island Wal-Mart after being trampled in Black Friday stampede” by Joe Gould, Clare Trapasso, and Rich Schapiro. The New York Daily News. 28 November 2008.
The Brooklyn Bridge Stampede
- Brooklyn Bridge via Wikipedia. Retrieved February 2017.
- “Brooklyn Bridge Disaster” by Robert McNamara. History1800s.about.com. Retrieved February 2017.
- “130 Years Ago, Elephants Solved Panic On the Brooklyn Bridge” by Jaya Saxena. New York Historical Society Museum and Library. Behindthescenes.nyhistory.org. 29 May 2014. Retrieved February 2017.
- “New-York tribune., May 31, 1883. Image 1” via Library of Congress. Retrieved February 2017.
- “Sacramento daily record-union., May 31,1883, Image 1” via Library of Congress. Retrieved February 2017.
Mecca Tunnel Tragedy and the Mina Stampede
- 1990 Mecca tunnel tragedy via Wikipedia. Retrieved February 2017.
- “Saudis Criticized Over Mecca Tunnel Disaster” by Youssef M. Ibrahim. The New York Times. 19 July 1990.
- “‘Stoning the Devil’ Began Mecca’s Tunnel Tragedy” by Aly Mahmoud. The Seattle Times. 5 July 1990. .
- “Saudis yet to accept our offer of experts” via The New Straits Times. 19 July 1990.
- 2015 Mina Stampede via Wikipedia. Retrieved February 2017.
- “Hajj Stampede Near Mecca Leaves Over 700 Dead” by Ben Hubbard. The New York Times. 24 September 2015.
- “How the Hajj Stampede Unfolded” by The New York Times. The New York Times. 25 September 2015.
- GRAPHIC CONTENT نسيمة السادة (@nasema33). “إنا لله وانا اليه راجعون ، حسبي الله ونعم الوكيل
#تدافع_مشعر_منى #الحج1436” September 24, 2015, 4:52 a.m. Retrieved February 2017.
- “The Causes and Prevention of Crowd Disasters” by John J. Fruin. crowdsafe.com. January 2002. Retrieved February 2017.
- “Crush Point” by John Seabrook. The New Yorker. 7 February 2011.
- Love Parade Disaster via Wikipedia. Retrieved February 2017.
- “Crowd disasters as systematic failures: analysis of the Love Parade disaster” by Dirk Helbing and Pratik Mukerji. EPJ Data Science. 25 June 2012.
- “Hajj crush: how crowd disasters happen, and how they can be avoided” by Leo Benedictus. The Guardian. 3 October 2015.
- “De Staat – Witch Doctor (official video)” via Youtube.com. Uploaded by DeStaatOfficial. 26 September 2015.
Music used in this podcast:
Neganote – Only Questions Remain
Podington Bear – Dark Water
Podington Bear – Juliette